Regional IPM Competitive Grants Program

The Regional IPM Competitive Grants Program is administered by the land grant university system’s four regions (North Central, Northeastern, Southern, and Western), in partnership with USDA/CSREES.


Funded Projects

    • 2005
    • 2006

2005: Eight Grants Funded in Regional IPM Competitive Grants Program

Five research grants totaling $485,000 and three research/extension grants totaling $176,652, were funded in 2005:

Determining the Potential for Release of Lepidopteran Parasitoids from Pesticide Limitation to Enable Biologically Based IPM in Caneberries
Principal Investigators: Leonard Coop and Paul Jepson, Oregon State University

Problem and Project Summary:
To remain economically viable, the $82 million Washington and Oregon caneberry industry (red raspberry, blackberry, and other Rubus spp.) needs new integrated pest management (IPM) approaches to control leafroller insect pests, and methods for timely dissemination of information to a wide group of growers.

The orange tortrix, Argyrotaenia franciscana, a leafrolling insect, is the major harvest contaminant in caneberry production. To meet near-zero insect contamination tolerances set by processors, growers have traditionally used multiple applications of broad-spectrum insecticides. These sprays induce resurgent leafroller populations due to natural enemy mortality, especially parasitoid wasps (families Braconidae and Ichneumonidae). They are also expensive, and are facing increased public concern and FQPA regulation.

The proposed program will address 13 research, regulatory, and educational needs listed in the recent pest management strategic plan (PMSP) for OR and WA caneberries. It will combine selective controls, conservation biological control, IPM, and direct grower participation. It will demonstrate the effectiveness of weekly on-farm scouting in conjunction with email and web updates to growers from pre-bloom through harvest. Project personnel will implement workshops, web sites, newsletters, and on-farm demonstrations. This integrated program will allow growers a safe transition pathway to reducing risk from leafroller contaminant losses, while demonstrating the value of biologically-based IPM that can then be transferred to a wider community of growers.

Objectives: 1) To determine the incidence, timing, and activity levels of the key leafroller natural enemies and the extent to which they are limited in the field by pesticide disturbance or by deficiencies in shelter, alternate hosts, and floral resources; and 2) to assist the design of improved management programs for leafrollers in caneberries.

Spatially Explicit Approaches for Measuring and Implementing Higher Level, Multi-Crop, Multi-Pest IPM
P.I.s: Peter C. Ellsworth and Al Fournier, University of Arizona, Maricopa; Yves Carriére, University of Arizona, Tucson; John C. Palumbo, University of Arizona, Yuma

Problem: The investigators have developed IPM guidelines for cross-commodity management of whiteflies. These guidelines provide for sharing of important reduced-risk chemistries among major crops like cotton, vegetables, and melons to delay the development of resistance in pest populations. But adoption of these guidelines over large areas, often with multiple crops, will be required to ensure area-wide reduction in whitefly populations and to provide effective resistance management for major reduced-risk technologies.

Objectives: (1) Using newly developed spatially explicit analysis methods, quantitatively evaluate group adoption of the guidelines by Arizona growers; (2) through dialog with stakeholders, gain insight into the adoption of specific reduced-risk chemistries and other IPM behaviors in Arizona cropping systems; and (3) develop a better, more responsive approach to IPM guidelines generation, evaluation, and education.

Progress Report (PDF*, MS Word)

Mechanisms and Impacts of Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Dalmatian Toadflax Control in the Western United States
P.I.s: Stephen Enloe, Tim Collier, and Paul Meiman, University of Wyoming; Andrew Norton, Colorado State University

Problem: Dalmatian toadflax is a highly invasive exotic forb (a nonwoody broadleaved plant other than a grass) that threatens rangelands throughout the western United States. It is classified as a noxious weed in every western state except Utah, Alaska, and Hawaii and is very difficult to control. Cultural control is largely ineffective and impractical on many invaded rangelands. Chemical control has shown promise, though herbicides can have detrimental effects on nontarget plants. Biological control with the Dalmatian toadflax stem mining weevil, Mecinus janthinus, has also shown promise, but suppression is slow or insufficient under some conditions. Very little is known about IPM of Dalmatian toadflax, though this approach is clearly warranted.

Objectives: To evaluate IPM strategies for Dalmatian toadflax control using combinations of reduced-rate applications of two herbicides currently used for toadflax control (imazapic and picloram) and releases of Mecinus janthinus. The overall goal of this approach is to minimize risk to nontarget species while achieving rapid, long-term, and economical Dalmatian toadflax management.

Progress Report 2006 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 2007 (PDF*, MS Word) – Photos (PDF*)

Development of an IPM Program for Arthropod Pests of Cool-Season Grass Hay Crops
P.I.s: Larry Godfrey, University of California, Davis; Doug Walsh, Washington State University

Problem: Hay from cool-season grasses, especially timothy (Phleum pretense) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), is an important crop in several western states. As the crop acreage, market demands, and importance to local agricultural economies all increase, the needs for and scrutiny of sound IPM practices have also increased in the crop.

Objectives: To investigate sampling protocols, decision thresholds, the influence of cultural practices on pest populations, and the incidence of biological control on sites in California, Washington, and Nevada, and to develop the data needed to design a baseline IPM program for major arthropod pests of cool-season grass crops.

Progress Report 2006 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)

Developing Integrated Management Programs for Soilborne Potato Diseases Using Mycofumigation, Trichoderma sp., Pesticides, and Host Resistance
P.I.s: Barry Jacobsen and Nina Zidack, Montana State University

Problem and Project Summary:
Potatoes are grown in every Western Region state with more than 749,000 acres of production equaling 57.3% of the total U.S. acreage. In Idaho, Washington, and Colorado more than 60 million pounds of Vapam (metam sodium) are used each year for control of early dying and nematodes. This proposal addresses potential replacement of the fumigant pesticides metam sodium (Vapam), metam potassium (K-pam), and 1,3 dichloropropene-1,3,3 trichloropropane (Telone) that are used to control potato early dying and nematodes. These fumigants are used on 30-55% of the potato acreage in the western region and are high-cost inputs economically, environmentally, and in terms of human health risks. Finding alternative management strategies for Rhizoctonia black scurf and canker, for the early dying complex that involves Verticillium dahliae or V. albo-atrum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus sp.), and for control of other nematodes including Meloidogyne chitwoodi have been identified as high priorities in the Pest Management Strategic Plan (PMSP) for Pacific Northwest Potato Production and in Potato Crop Profiles for ID, WA, and CO. The potential replacement involves mycofumigation. Mycofumigation is the use of antimicrobial volatile chemicals produced by certain fungi for the control of other microorganisms. In vitro tests with these fungi have shown that they effectively inhibit and kill many important plant pathogens but are neither phytotoxic nor pathogenic to any of the 8 plant families they have been tested on.

1) To study the potential of mycofumigation for control of soil-borne plant pathogens of potato with emphasis on Verticillium dahliae (Verticillium wilt), Colletotrichum coccodes (black dot root rot), and Rhizoctonia solani (Rhizoctonia black scurf and canker); 2) to examine the potential to integrate fungicide controls and Trichoderma harzianum Rafai (T-22) for Rhizoctonia and black dot root rot with mycofumigation for control of Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Rhizoctonia solani (Rhizoctonia black scurf and canker) in greenhouse studies; 3) to examine the efficacy of mycofumigation for control of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne chitwoodi in in vitro and greenhouse studies; and 4) to determine the resistance of cultivars commonly grown in the Pacific Northwest and other germplasm to black dot root rot.Progress Progress Report (PDF*, MS Word)
Final Report (PDF*, MS Word)

Integrated Control of Spotted Knapweed: Utilizing Spotted Knapweed-Resistant Native Plants to Facilitate Revegetation
P.I.s: Mark Paschke, Jorge Vivanco, and Laura Perry, Colorado State University; Ragan Callaway, University of Montana

Problem: Invasive plants are recognized as having severe ecological and economic impacts. Affordable long-term management methods are lacking for many of the most destructive exotic invasive plants, including spotted knapweed. Research on weed invasions has primarily focused on aboveground processes. However, it is now known that plant roots are unparalleled factories of diverse chemicals, and that the secretion of a phytotoxin by the roots of knapweed is a possible mechanism for its success in replacing native species. Understanding this below-ground chemical warfare can suggest completely new approaches to managing and restoring invaded landscapes.

Objectives: (1) To determine if plants that excrete high concentrations of organic acids into the rhizosphere (the soil region around a plant’s roots) can be used to detoxify spotted knapweed soils and allow for the subsequent establishment of native vegetation. The native vegetation to be examined will include an arsenal of knapweed phytotoxin-resistant and knapweed phytotoxin-sensitive species that investigators have screened and characterized under previous funding; (2) to identify which of the knapweed phytotoxin-resistant plants identified under previous funding also produce high concentrations of knapweed phytotoxin-fighting organic acids.

Progress Report 2006 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 1 – 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 2 – 2007 (with photos) (PDF*, MS Word)

Yield Losses for Western Bean Cutworm and European Corn Borer Among Site-Specific Management Zones of Field Corn
P.I.s: Frank Peairs and Rajiv Khosla, Colorado State University

Problem: Site-specific insect management has the potential to make pest management more efficient. Benefits of site specific management include a reduction in the amount and costs of insecticides applied, reduced environmental contamination, preservation of natural enemies, and better management of insecticide resistance. One method of implementing site-specific management would be to make decisions at the site-specific management zone level. Site-specific management zones (SSMZ) are areas within fields that have similar yield potential and are managed in a similar manner. The management zone concept is currently being used in numerous areas of crop production, such as water and fertilizer management; however, little research has been done that relates insect injury to SSMZs.

Objectives: This study is being conducted in a corn (Zea mays L.) agroecosystem with two pests: western bean cutworm (Richia albicosta [Smith]) and European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis [Hübner]). The objective is to determine how loss factors differ for these two pests among SSMZs. Artificial infestations will be used to create various levels of injury for each pest among SSMZs. Loss factors will be statistically determined using regression analysis. The determination of loss factors is necessary for the development of economic injury levels (EILs). The eventual use of EILs for separate SSMZs could greatly improve the efficiency of pest management for these pests.

Progress Report (PDF*, MS Word)
Final Report (PDF*, MS Word)

Reduced Fungicide Use for Hop Downy Mildew Management
P.I.s: Cynthia Ocamb and Leonard Coop, Oregon State University; David Gent, USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

Problem: Hop (Humulus lupulus) is an economically important crop in the western United States, producing nearly the entire U.S. supply and greater than 30% of the world supply of hops. Hop downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora humuli, is one of the oldest and most devastating diseases of hop and remains a serious threat to sustainable and profitable hop production. Current management relies heavily upon chemical inputs, with some growers using as many as 10 applications per season to suppress disease. The need to develop multi-tactic strategies that reduce unnecessary pesticide use is underscored by increasing production costs and concerns over food safety and environmental quality.

Objective: The overall objective of this project is to improve hop grower profitability and sustainability with reduced-risk pest management tactics that will protect hop plants against downy mildew and conserve environmental quality.

Progress Report 2006 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 1 – 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 2 – 2007 (PDF*, MS Word) – Photo (PDF*)

2006: Seven Grants Funded in Regional IPM Competitive Grants Program

Environment-Friendly Strategies for Management of Mealybugs, Ants, Ampeloviruses, and Mealybug Wilt of Pineapple
Principal Investigators: John S. Hu and Diane M. Sether, University of Hawaii, Honolulu

Problem and Project Summary: Pineapples are the state of Hawaii’s leading agricultural commodity. The most economically important insect pests of pineapple are pineapple mealybugs. The mealybugs are vectors of at least three pineapple mealybug wilt associated viruses (PMWaV) that correlate with yield reductions that can exceed 35% in pineapple. PMWaV-2 is also a factor in mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP), one of the most devastating diseases of pineapple in Hawaii and worldwide. In the pursuit of mealybug control, the pineapple industry is currently the largest user of the restricted organophosphate insecticide, diazinon, in Hawaii. In 2003, the investigators began a field study to evaluate alternative, environmental-friendly approaches to control grey pineapple mealybugs, associated ant species, the spread of the PMWaVs, and subsequent MWP during the plant crop phase of the pineapple crop cycle. The pineapple crop cycle consists of the plant crop (17 – 20 months), ratoon crop (13 – 16 months; a ratoon is a shoot that grows from the plant’s roots), and a fallow period of at least six months. Investigators developed and utilized ant and mealybug detection systems to determine the timing and type of control necessary to prevent virus spread and MWP during the plant crop phase. In the case of grey mealybugs, investigators found that if they achieved control of two associated ant species, it was not necessary to apply diazinon to prevent development of MWP or the spread of PMWaVs. They accomplished ant control through the use of a hydramethylnon-based ant bait, Amdro®. Since the infrastructure of the pineapple field and canopy becomes more complex as the plant crop gives rise to the ratoon crop, control methodologies during the ratoon crop may require changes. The current project will extend the investigators’ evaluation of environment-friendly alternatives to diazinon through the ratoon crop phase and the fallow period, completing the crop cycle. Investigators believe the information they gain will have applicability to all pineapple producing tropical and subtropical regions and may also have applicability to other crops plagued by mealybugs, mealybug-transmitted viruses, and the associated ants.

Objective: To demonstrate and compare alternative control strategies for minimizing incidences of virus spread and mealybug wilt of pineapple in the ratoon and fallow periods of the pineapple crop.Progress Report 2007 (with photos) (PDF*, MS Word)

Economic Analysis of Host-Based Poultry Ectoparasite Control
P.I.: Bradley Mullens, University of California, Riverside

Problem and Project Summary: Among caged laying hens in the United States, the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and the chicken body louse (Menacanthus stramineus) are serious ectoparasites (parasites that live on the exterior of their hosts), affecting production and causing irritation for people who work with the hens. Currently, both pests are controlled solely through prevention and pesticide use. Once pests are established, control is exclusively chemical; there are no IPM strategies. Because of worker exposure concerns, pesticide resistance—a serious issue for poultry systems—and the discontinuation of malathion (preferred for lice), nonchemical controls are urgently needed for both traditional and organic laying hen producers. In addition, animal welfare issues have surfaced, such as concerns about beak trimming to prevent pecking damage and reduce feed consumption, and these are having an impact on laying hen husbandry. However, hens can be bred for docile behavior, and one popular strain (Hyline W-36) can be held successfully without beak trimming. Recent research shows that hens with intact beaks reduce ectoparasite populations by 90% compared to hens with trimmed beaks. Recent studies also show that unchecked mite populations on beak-trimmed hens cause loss in egg mass and feed conversion efficiency (how efficiently hens convert the food they eat into egg production). This project will examine hens with parasites, comparing hens with trimmed versus untrimmed beaks in a full economic analysis that includes parasite census, feed conversion efficiency, egg numbers and mass, and profitability. Grooming behavior will be documented to determine if higher parasite numbers on hens with trimmed beaks are due to reduced effort or reduced efficiency. If parasite numbers on hens with intact beaks are below economic damage levels, this will provide a powerful incentive to breed and use docile hens, and this single technique may eliminate worker pesticide exposure and the two major parasites as an economic concern. Anticipated outcomes include showing that, for parasite control, the age of trimmed beaks is a negligible factor compared to the presence or absence of an intact beak, and that under many circumstances the use of beak-intact hens will pay for itself in terms of overall profits.

Objectives: 1) To determine the economics of production for both beak-trimmed and beak-intact hens that have either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, quantifying their egg number and mass, hen body weight, feed conversion efficiency, and parasite loads; 2) to determine the interaction of ectoparasite grooming behavior with the hens’ beak condition and the age of beak trimming; and 3) to inform the laying hen industry of the potential benefits of using beak-intact hens for eliminating worker pesticide exposure, reducing or eliminating worker nuisance concerns, eliminating the economic concerns of ectoparasite control, and perhaps reducing animal welfare issues and criticism.

Progress Report 2006 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 1 – 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)
Progress Report 2 – 2007 (PDF*, MS Word) – Photos (PDF*)

Effect of Primary Tillage Sequence, Insecticides, and Weed Seed Placement on Seed Predator Conservation, Efficacy, and Weed Emergence
P.I.s: R. Edward Peachey and Carol Mallory Smith, Oregon State University; Dan McGrath, Oregon State University Extension Service; Rick Boydston, USDA Agricultural Research Service

Problem and Project Summary: Summer annual weeds continue to trouble row crop producers in the Pacific Northwest. Producers have been successful in using available weed management tools to prevent crop loss from weed competition, but they have not succeeded in reducing the need and level of intervention. The investigators point out the need to move beyond controlling weeds to controlling weed seed. The goal of their project is to suppress summer annual weed populations in vegetable row crops through the development of cropping systems that conserve seed predators and enhance weed seed predation. Specifically, using a split plot design, investigators will use tillage treatments (no-till versus conventional tillage methods) to test the hypothesis that reducing tillage disturbance in a crop rotation will increase the potential for seed predation. Reduced tillage is known to improve habitat for soil-dwelling seed predators, and when soil is not tilled weed seeds remain near the surface where seed predators are more likely to come in contact with them. Second, investigators will compare insecticide treated plots to untreated plots to test the hypothesis that insecticide use hinders seed predation because it reduces populations of soil-dwelling seed-eating invertebrates. Third, they will use weed seed burial depth treatments to test the hypothesis that weed seed predation is greater when seeds remain on the soil surface, whether in conventional or no-till systems. Fourth, they will use herbicide treated plots to provide a realistic assessment of seed predation effects on weed density, and they will use untreated control plots to assess actual weed seed mortality and survival. In addition, investigators will survey the species diversity and estimate the activity density and seed predation potential of adult ground beetle and seed bug populations in vegetable crop rotations (conventional and organic) in western Oregon and eastern Washington. Finally, they will conduct laboratory evaluations of the seed predation potential of millipedes common to agricultural systems, seed bugs, and other potentially key maritime Northwest seed predators. The investigators anticipate this project to generate knowledge about 1) the biological and economic impact of tillage/planting systems, insecticide use, and weed seed position on the efficacy of weed seed predators and on weed emergence; 2) the regional variations in predator species, activity density, and seed predation rates in both conventional and organic sites; and 3) the feeding preferences and expected predation rates for wild proso millet and Powell amaranth.

Objectives: 1) To determine the effect of tillage system and sequence, insecticide use, and weed seed position in the soil on weed seed predation, subsequent weed seedling recruitment or emergence, and weed seed mortality and dormancy; 2) to survey the species diversity and estimate the activity-density and seed predation potential of adult ground beetle and seed bug populations in vegetable crop rotations (conventional and organic) in western Oregon and eastern Washington; and 3) to evaluate the seed predation potential of the Julid millipedes (Julida: Julidae spp.), seed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae spp.), and other potentially key maritime Northwest seed predators in the laboratory.Progress Report 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)

Assessment and Implementation of Insecticidal Nematodes: An Alternative for Control of Urban Pests
P.I.s: S. Patricia Stock and Dawn H. Gouge, University of Arizona, Tucson

Problem and Project Summary: With the overall goal of reducing human exposure to pests and the tactics used to control them in urban and suburban areas, investigators will assess Arizona-native nematodes as alternative tools for control of common urban arthropod pests in the western United States. They will evaluate the effectiveness of these insecticidal or entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) alone and in combination with chemical pesticides to help minimize current chemical pesticide practices. Like other natural enemies, entomopathogens can exert considerable control of target populations. EPNs are widespread in nature; specific to insects; safe to nontarget organisms including humans, other vertebrates, and plants; and do not pollute the environment. They can be mass-produced in large fermentation tanks, stored for long periods, and applied by conventional methods using standard spray equipment, making them a desirable commercial alternative. To effectively implement Arizona-native EPNs for the control of urban pests, basic research needs to be established. Data are available regarding scorpion, termite, and ant efficacy, but research has not focused on native EPN species. This project will assess the biological, ecological, and behavioral traits of native EPN species in laboratory-based tests to predict their efficacy in the field.

Objectives: 1) To determine the optimum nematode species and strain (in relation to pest species) and optimum dosage for the management of selected urban pests in Arizona; 2) to evaluate repellency as a management strategy for target pests; 3) to study the effect of abiotic (temperature, soil moisture, and UV tolerance) and biotic (foraging behavior) parameters on nematode efficacy (virulence and reproductive capacity); 4) to evaluate EPN efficacy in combination with chemical insecticides; and 5) to conduct small-scale field trials in different urban and suburban settings with those EPN species, strains, and concentrations that have been demonstrated to be effective in controlling selected arthropod pests in the laboratory tests.Progress Report 2007 (PDF*) – Photos (PDF*)

Integration of a Modified Strain of BlightBan® A506 with Conventional Fire Blight Management
P.I.s: Virginia O. Stockwell and Kenneth B. Johnson, Oregon State University; Joyce E. Loper, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory

Problem and Project Summary: Streptomycin-resistant populations of Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium that causes fire blight, a serious disease of pear and apple, are widespread in the western United States. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield®) is currently the conventional, chemical standard for fire blight control, and two biopesticides, Serenade® (Bacillus subtilis) and BlightBan® A506 (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506), are registered for fire blight suppression. Seeking more effective management of streptomycin-resistant fire blight, the investigators have developed a modified strain of the biopesticide BlightBan® A506 (called A506 AprX-) that they will test in an integrated strategy with conventional control methods in pathogen-inoculated, small-scale orchard trials. At mid-bloom, they will apply their modified strain (in combination with another new biopesticide product, BlightBan® C9-1) and follow this with an application of oxytetracycline (Mycoshield®) at full bloom. These integrated treatments will be compared to two applications of antibiotic and biopesticide standards and to a water-treated control. The investigators will also evaluate the effect of different combinations of biopesticide and antibiotic applications on the population dynamics of Erwinia amylovor and the effect of oxytetracycline application on the population dynamics of biopesticide strains.

Objectives: 1) To evaluate in pathogen-inoculated, small-scale orchard trials, the integrated strategy for control of fire blight with the new biopesticide products, BlightBan® C9-1 combined with BlightBan® A506 and BlightBan® C9-1 combined with the protease-deficient mutant of A506 (A506 AprX-). The integrated strategy will consist of one biopesticide application to pear/apple trees at mid-bloom followed by one application of oxytetracycline (Mycoshield®) at full bloom. Integrated treatments will be compared to two applications of antibiotic and biopesticide standards and to a water-treated control; and 2) to evaluate the effect of biopesticide and antibiotic applications (singly and in combination) on population dynamics of the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A secondary objective is to evaluate the effect of oxytetracycline application on the population dynamics of biopesticide strains.Progress Report 2007 (PDF*, MS Word) – Photos (PDF*)

Wheat Seed Quality Effects on Competitive Ability with Wild Oat
P.I.s: Robert Stougaard and Qingwu Xue, Montana State University, Bozeman; Joe Yenish and John Burns, Washington State University, Pullman

Problem and Project Summary: The overall goal of the project is to improve crop competitiveness against weeds, giving specific consideration to the relationship between crop seed quality and seedling vigor. The project focuses specifically on spring wheat and its most important weed pest, wild oat. Producers currently rely on herbicides to the virtual exclusion of all other strategies to control wild oat, and there is now a widespread occurrence of herbicide resistant biotypes. The project evaluates the interactive effects of seed size, seed protein content, and gibberellic acid (GA) seed treatments on spring wheat’s ability to compete against wild oat. All three factors contribute to enhanced wheat emergence, seedling vigor, and developmental rates, and investigators hypothesize that their integration will enhance their individual attributes, stabilize their cumulative impact on wild oat, and provide for a more durable weed management system. Investigators will add suppressive rates of herbicides to enhance the cumulative effect on the weed.

Tralkoxydim is a widely used postemergence wild oat herbicide. For objective one, investigators will use a factorial treatment arrangement consisting of two protein levels, two seed size classes, two GA concentrations, and two wild oat densities. They will measure crop emergence, growth rates, yield, and yield components to quantify treatment effects. For objective two, the factorial treatment arrangement will consist of five tralkoxydim rates superimposed on four cropping systems that vary in competitive abilities. Investigators will measure yield and yield components and perform an economic analysis. Although wild oat and spring wheat serve as the initial indicator species, investigators believe the results should be transferable to other weeds that infest small grains.

Objectives: 1) To determine the interactive effects of seed size, protein content, and GA seed treatments on spring wheat competitive ability for the suppression of wild oat; and (2) to determine to what extent seed quality factors influence the effects of variable tralkoxydim rates on wild oat control, wheat yield, and economic returns.Progress Report 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)

Development of an Electronic, Multi-Entry Key for Diagnosing Arthropod, Disease, and Abiotic Problems of Small Grains
P.I.s: Ned Tisserat and Ronda Koski, Colorado State University; William Lanier, Montana State University, Bozeman

Problem and Project Summary: The first step in a successful IPM program is rapid and accurate identification of the cause of the plant problem. Inaccurate diagnosis can result in pesticide misapplication, whereas a delayed diagnosis may allow pests to develop to population levels that are not easily controlled by IPM practices. For many crops, information about symptoms and other elements associated with the various causes of crop disorders are published in separate publications, making it difficult for pest control decision makers to track down relevant, integrated information that can be efficiently and effectively used for diagnostic purposes. Investigators saw the need for an easily accessible, integrated diagnostic resource that was linked to current IPM recommendations; that brought together all the relevant information about crop disorders, including diseases, arthropods, and abiotic problems; and that provided assistance and resources for diagnosing unidentified problems. The overall goal of this project is to provide growers, crop advisers, extension agents, diagnosticians, and others associated with crop production with multi-entry, multi-media, commodity-based electronic keys to aid in the diagnosis and management of crop problems.

Objectives: 1) To create a general framework for integrating field diagnostics of insects, diseases, and abiotic disorders into an electronic, multi-entry diagnostic key; (2) to validate the usefulness of the general framework by developing a diagnostic key specifically for pest and abiotic problems of small grains of the High Plains region of the United States; and (3) to release free copies of the small grains diagnostic key to stakeholders and provide student-driven, self-paced training in its use.Progress Report 2007 (PDF*, MS Word)

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